• R Khalil Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Q Ali Institute of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, The University of Lahore, Lahore
  • MM Hafeez Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • A Malik Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan



Conocarpus erectus, phytochemical, antibacterial, antioxidant, hepta-protective


Mangroves speak to regions of high organic profitability and it is a locale wealthy in bioactive substances utilized in medication invention. Conocarpus erectus has placed in the family Combretaceae, in one of the two species of Conocarpus genus and ordinarily exists in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, right through West Indies, America and Africa. The fundamental goal of this audit was to draw attention to the applicable reported information distributed about its phytochemistry, therapeutic potential, botanical aspects as well as traditional uses of Conocarpus erectus. C. erectus is an evergreen tree with 20cm in diameter and 6m tall with scattering crown. This plant was selected because of its huge medicinal importance. The extract of Conocarpus erectus (leaves, shoot, bark & fruit) parts shows high antibacterial, antioxidant and hepta-protective activities due to phenolic content. It contains phenol such as tannin and flavinoid as major component. Tannin has high antibacterial activity than other compound. C. erectus is notable for its folkloristic curative potential.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdel-Hameed, E.-S. S., Bazaid, S. A., and Sabra, A. N. A. (2013). Protective effect of conocarpus erectus extracts on CCl4-induced chronic liver injury in mice. Glob J Pharmacol 7, 52-60.

Abdel-Hameed, E.-S. S., Bazaid, S. A., and Shohayeb, M. M. (2014). RP-HPLC-UV-ESI-MS phytochemical analysis of fruits of Conocarpus erectus L. Chemical Papers 68, 1358-1367.

Abdel-Hameed, E.-S. S., Bazaid, S. A., Shohayeb, M. M., El-Sayed, M. M., and El-Wakil, E. A. (2012). Phytochemical studies and evaluation of antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial properties of Conocarpus erectus L. growing in Taif, Saudi Arabia. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2, 93-112.

Ahmad, T. (2004). Medicinal herbs and products. Pharma professional services Karachi, Pakistan, pp. 105&1511.

Ahmed, K., Ahmed, N., and Siddiqui, M. T. (2016a). Green Synthesis of Silver Nano Particles by Plant Leaf Extract. FUUAST Journal of Biology 6, 61-64.

Ahmed, K., Yasmin, F., and Hussain, N. (2016b). GREEN SYNTHESIS OF NICKEL NANOPARTICLES BY USING PLANT LEAF EXTRACT AS REDUCING AGENT. Science International 28, 2511-2511.

Asif, M., Saqib, M., Yousaf, B., Adnan, M., Yousaf, A., Ali, A., and Sabir, D. (2014). Growth and ionic composition of buttonwood (Conocarpus erectus L.) in response to soil salinity and water stress. Growth 19.

Atanasov, A. G., Waltenberger, B., Pferschy-Wenzig, E.-M., Linder, T., Wawrosch, C., Uhrin, P., Temml, V., Wang, L., Schwaiger, S., and Heiss, E. H. (2015). Discovery and resupply of pharmacologically active plant-derived natural products: a review. Biotechnology advances 33, 1582-1614.

Ayoub, N. A. (2010). A trimethoxyellagic acid glucuronide from Conocarpus erectus leaves: Isolation, characterization and assay of antioxidant capacity. Pharmaceutical biology 48, 328-332.

Bailey, L. (1976). "Hortus Third: A concise dictionary of plant cultivated in US and Canada," Rep. No. 306. Mac'milan publishing Co. Inc.

Bashir, M., Uzair, M., and Chaudhry, B. A. (2015). A review of phytochemical and biological studies on Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae). Pak J Pharm Res 1, 1-8.

Beutler, J. A. (2009). Natural products as a foundation for drug discovery. Current protocols in pharmacology 46, 9.11. 1-9.11. 21.

Borchardt, J. K. (2002). The Beginnings of Drug Therapy: Ancient Mesopotamian Medicine. Drug news & perspectives 15, 187-192.

Carneiro, D. B., Barboza, M. S. L., and Menezes, M. P. (2010). Plantas nativas úteis na Vila dos Pescadores da Reserva Extrativista Marinha Caeté-Taperaçu, Pará, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 24, 1027-1033.

Chaveerach, A., Aungkapattamagul, S., Tanee, T., Noikotr, K., and Sudmoon, R. (2014). Genetic verification and chemical contents identification of Allamanda species (Apocynaceae). Pak J Pharm Sci 27, 417-424.

Cragg, G. M., Katz, F., Newman, D. J., and Rosenthal, J. (2012). The impact of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on natural products research. Natural product reports 29, 1407-1423.

Cragg, G. M., and Newman, D. J. (2013). Natural products: a continuing source of novel drug leads. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 1830, 3670-3695.

David, B., Wolfender, J.-L., and Dias, D. A. (2015). The pharmaceutical industry and natural products: historical status and new trends. Phytochemistry Reviews 14, 299-315.

Dey, A., Gorai, P., Mukherjee, A., Dhan, R., and Modak, B. K. (2017). Ethnobiological treatments of neurological conditions in the Chota Nagpur Plateau, India. Journal of ethnopharmacology 198, 33-44.

Gholami, A., Davami, A. H., Panahpour, E., and Amini, H. (2012). Evaluation of" Conocarpus erectus" plant as biomonitoring of soil and air pollution in Ahwaz region. Advances in Environmental Biology, 1753-1758.

Gill, M. (2003). Cultivation of medicinal and aromatic herbs: Experiences of IMHC. Conservation and sustainable uses of medicinal and aromatic plants of Pakistan. WWF-Pakistan, 23-31.

Hussein, R. A. (2016). Evaluation antioxidant and antibacterial activities of n-Butanol fraction of Conocarpus erectus L. leaves extract. Int J Pharm Med Res 4, 394-400.

Jagessar, R. C., and Cox, M. (2010). PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF THE CHCL 3 AND CH 3 CH 2 OH EXTRACT OF STEMS, TWIGS, ROOTS AND BARKS OF CONOCARPUS ERECTUS. L. International Journal of Academic Research 2.

Ji, H. F., Li, X. J., and Zhang, H. Y. (2009). Natural products and drug discovery: can thousands of years of ancient medical knowledge lead us to new and powerful drug combinations in the fight against cancer and dementia? EMBO reports 10, 194-200.

Kinghorn, A. D., Pan, L., Fletcher, J. N., and Chai, H. (2011). The relevance of higher plants in lead compound discovery programs. Journal of natural products 74, 1539-1555.

Martins, N., Ferreira, I. C., Barros, L., Carvalho, A. M., Henriques, M., and Silva, S. (2015). Plants used in folk medicine: The potential of their hydromethanolic extracts against Candida species. Industrial crops and products 66, 62-67.

Modak, B. K., Gorai, P., Dhan, R., Mukherjee, A., and Dey, A. (2015). Tradition in treating taboo: Folkloric medicinal wisdom of the aboriginals of Purulia district, West Bengal, India against sexual, gynaecological and related disorders. Journal of ethnopharmacology 169, 370-386.

Nascimento, D. K., SOUZA, I. A., OLIVEIRA, A. F. D., Barbosa, M. O., Santana, M. A., Pereira Junior, D. F., Lira, E. C., and VIEIRA, J. R. (2016). Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 88, 1431-1437.

Nawwar, M., Buddrus, J., and Bauer, H. (1982). Dimeric phenolic constituents from the roots of Tamarix nilotica. Phytochemistry 21, 1755-1758.

Organization, W. H. (2013). "WHO traditional medicine strategy: 2014-2023," World Health Organization.

Raza, M. A., Anwar, F., Shahwar, D., Majeed, A., Mumtaz, M. W., Danish, M., Nazar, M. F., Perveen, I., and Khan, S. U.-D. (2016). Antioxidant and antiacetylcholine esterase potential of aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus, Ficus variegata and Ficus maclellandii. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences 29.


Santos, D. K. D. d. N., de Almeida, V. S., de Araujo, D. R. C., Harand, W., Soares, A. K. d. A., Moreira, L. R., de Lorena, V. M. B., Magalhães, L. P. M., Ximenes, R. M., and de Sena, K. X. d. F. R. (2018). Evaluation of cytotoxic, immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract from leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus (Combretaceae). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 70, 1092-1101.

Shinwari, Z. K., and Qaiser, M. (2011). Efforts on conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants of Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot 43, 5-10.

Shohayeb, M., Abdel-Hameed, E., and Bazaid, S. (2013). Antimicrobial activity of tannins and extracts of different parts of Conocarpus erectus L. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 3, 544-553.

von Linsingen, L., Cervi, A. C., and Guimarães, O. (2009). Taxonomic synopsis of the family Combretaceae R. Brown in southern Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 23, 738-750.

Wang, G., Tang, W., and Bidigare, R. R. (2005). Terpenoids as therapeutic drugs and pharmaceutical agents. In "Natural products", pp. 197-227. Springer.

West, R. C. (1977). Tidal salt marsh and mangal formations of Middle and South America. In Ecosystems of the World 1, Wet Coastal Ecosystems (Ed. By V.J Chapman), pp. 193-213. Elsevier, Amsterdam.




How to Cite

Khalil, R., Ali, Q., Hafeez, M., & Malik, A. (2020). PHYTOCHEMICAL ACTIVITIES OF CONOCARPUS ERECTUS: AN OVERVIEW. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2020(1).



Original Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 > >>