THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITIES OF GARLIC CONSTITUENT PHYTOCHEMICALS
Keywords:garlic, Allium sativum, antibacterial, antifungal, herbal medicines
Garlic (Allium sativum L.) has medicinal value but also an important dietary component for centuries. It belongs to the family of Liliaceae, which is mostly grown and found in Ethiopia and Africa. Ethiopian garlic has been mostly used in traditional medicines. Inhibitory activity of garlic extract has been reported by various researchers for Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphyloccocus aureus, Nocardia asteroids, pseudomonas aeruginosa, actinomyces viscosus, veillonella alcaligens bacterial strains. The garlic paste and lime was used for mouth sore, sore throat and also can be used in toothpaste to prevent dental caries. The present review describes the potential of garlic phytochemicals for the improvement of the immune system against diseases in humans.
Agarwal, K. C. (1996). Therapeutic actions of garlic constituents. Medicinal research reviews 16, 111-124.
Alhashim, M., and Lombardo, J. (2018). Mechanism of action of topical garlic on wound healing. Dermatologic Surgery 44, 630-634.
Amagase, H., Petesch, B. L., Matsuura, H., Kasuga, S., and Itakura, Y. (2001). Intake of garlic and its bioactive components. The Journal of nutrition 131, 955S-962S.
Ankri, S., and Mirelman, D. (1999). Antimicrobial properties of allicin from garlic. Microbes and infection 1, 125-129.
Avato, P., Tursi, F., Vitali, C., Miccolis, V., and Candido, V. (2000). Allylsulfide constituents of garlic volatile oil as antimicrobial agents. Phytomedicine 7, 239-243.
Banerjee, S. K., and Maulik, S. K. (2002). Effect of garlic on cardiovascular disorders: a review. Nutrition journal 1, 1-14.
Bayan, L., Koulivand, P. H., and Gorji, A. (2014). Garlic: a review of potential therapeutic effects. Avicenna journal of phytomedicine 4, 1.
Bilal, M., Nasir, I., Tabassum, B., Akrem, A., Ahmad, A., and Ali, Q. (2020). Cytotoxicity and in-vitro antiviral activity of lectin from Crocus vernus l. against potato virus Y. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 18, 1301-1315.
Block, E. (2010). "Garlic other alliums," RSC publishing Cambridge.
Bongiorno, P. B., Fratellone, P. M., and LoGiudice, P. (2008). Potential health benefits of garlic (Allium sativum): a narrative review. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine 5.
Burke, J., Wells, A., Casey, P., and Miller, J. (2009). Garlic and papaya lack control over gastrointestinal nematodes in goats and lambs. Veterinary Parasitology 159, 171-174.
Calo, J. R., Crandall, P. G., O'Bryan, C. A., and Ricke, S. C. (2015). Essential oils as antimicrobials in food systems–A review. Food control 54, 111-119.
Chakraborty, S. B., and Hancz, C. (2011). Application of phytochemicals as immunostimulant, antipathogenic and antistress agents in finfish culture. Reviews in Aquaculture 3, 103-119.
Chattopadhyay, D., and Naik, T. N. (2007). Antivirals of ethnomedicinal origin: structure-activity relationship and scope. Mini reviews in medicinal chemistry 7, 275-301.
Corzo-Martínez, M., Corzo, N., and Villamiel, M. (2007). Biological properties of onions and garlic. Trends in food science & technology 18, 609-625.
Ejaz, S., Chekarova, I., Cho, J. W., Lee, S. Y., Ashraf, S., and Lim, C. W. (2009). Effect of aged garlic extract on wound healing: a new frontier in wound management. Drug and chemical toxicology 32, 191-203.
Flora, S. J. (2009). Structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants for strategies against metal and metalloid exposure. Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity 2, 191-206.
Girish, V. M., Liang, H., Aguilan, J. T., Nosanchuk, J. D., Friedman, J. M., and Nacharaju, P. (2019). Anti-biofilm activity of garlic extract loaded nanoparticles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 20, 102009.
Goncagul, G., and Ayaz, E. (2010). Antimicrobial effect of garlic (Allium sativum). Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery 5, 91-93.
Gull, I., Saeed, M., Shaukat, H., Aslam, S. M., Samra, Z. Q., and Athar, A. M. (2012). Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria. Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials 11, 1-6.
Gyawali, R., and Ibrahim, S. A. (2014). Natural products as antimicrobial agents. Food control 46, 412-429.
Hajheydari, Z., Jamshidi, M., Akbari, J., and Mohammadpour, R. (2007). Combination of topical garlic gel and betamethasone valerate cream in the treatment of localized alopecia areata: a double-blind randomized controlled study. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 73, 29.
Harris, J., Cottrell, S., Plummer, S., and Lloyd, D. (2001). Antimicrobial properties of Allium sativum (garlic). Applied microbiology and biotechnology 57, 282-286.
Hughes, B. G., and Lawson, L. D. (1991). Antimicrobial effects of Allium sativum L.(garlic), Allium ampeloprasum L.(elephant garlic), and Allium cepa L.(onion), garlic compounds and commercial garlic supplement products. Phytotherapy Research 5, 154-158.
Iciek, M., Kwiecień, I., and Włodek, L. (2009). Biological properties of garlic and garlic‐derived organosulfur compounds. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis 50, 247-265.
Indu, M., Hatha, A., Abirosh, C., Harsha, U., and Vivekanandan, G. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of some of the south-Indian spices against serotypes of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Aeromonas hydrophila. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 37, 153-158.
Ismaiel, A. A., Rabie, G. H., Kenawey, S. E., and EL-Aal, M. A. A. (2012). Efficacy of aqueous garlic extract on growth, aflatoxin B1 production, and cyto-morphological aberrations of Aspergillus flavus, causing human ophthalmic infection: topical treatment of A. flavus keratitis. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology 43, 1355-1364.
Jansen, H., Müller, B., and Knobloch, K. (1989). Alliin lyase from garlic, Allium sativum: Investigations on enzyme/substrate, enzyme/inhibitor interactions, and on a new coenzyme. Planta medica 55, 440-445.
Khan, M., Mostofa, M., Jahan, M., Sayed, M., and Hossain, M. (2008). Effect of garlic and vitamin B-complex in lead acetate induced toxicities in mice. Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 6, 203-210.
Kim, J., and Kyung, K. (2003). Antiyeast activity of heated garlic in the absence of alliinase enzyme action. Journal of food science 68, 1766-1770.
Kuettner, E. B., Hilgenfeld, R., and Weiss, M. S. (2002). The active principle of garlic at atomic resolution. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277, 46402-46407.
Lai, P., and Roy, J. (2004). Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices. Current medicinal chemistry 11, 1451-1460.
Lissiman, E., Bhasale, A. L., and Cohen, M. (2014). Garlic for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Londhe, V. (2011). Role of garlic (Allium sativum) in various diseases: An overview. angiogenesis 12, 13.
Meher, S., and Duley, L. (2006). Garlic for preventing pre‐eclampsia and its complications. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews.
Nasiru, A., Hafsat, I., Mohammad, M., and Sabo, A. (2012). Hepatoprotective effect of garlic homogenate co-administered with anti-tuberculosis drugs in ratliver enzymes. International Journal of Bioscience, Biochemistry and Bioinformatics 2, 354.
Rao, R. R., Rao, S. S., Natarajan, S., and Venkataraman, P. (1946). Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by garlic extract. Nature 157, 441-441.
Reinhart, K. M., Coleman, C. I., Teevan, C., Vachhani, P., and White, C. M. (2008). Effects of garlic on blood pressure in patients with and without systolic hypertension: a meta-analysis. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 42, 1766-1771.
Rivlin, R. S. (2001). Historical perspective on the use of garlic. The Journal of nutrition 131, 951S-954S.
Rose, K. D., Croissant, P. D., Parliament, C. F., and Levin, M. B. (1990). Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma with associated platelet dysfunction from excessive garlic ingestion: a case report. Neurosurgery 26, 880-882.
Ross, Z., O'Gara, E. A., Hill, D. J., Sleightholme, H., and Maslin, D. J. (2001). Antimicrobial properties of garlic oil against human enteric bacteria: evaluation of methodologies and comparisons with garlic oil sulfides and garlic powder. Applied and environmental microbiology 67, 475-480.
Rouf, R., Uddin, S. J., Sarker, D. K., Islam, M. T., Ali, E. S., Shilpi, J. A., Nahar, L., Tiralongo, E., and Sarker, S. D. (2020). Anti-viral potential of garlic (Allium sativum) and it's organosulfur compounds: A systematic update of pre-clinical and clinical data. Trends in Food Science & Technology.
Sallam, K. I., Ishioroshi, M., and Samejima, K. (2004). Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic in chicken sausage. LWT-Food Science and Technology 37, 849-855.
Shimon, L. J., Rabinkov, A., Shin, I., Miron, T., Mirelman, D., Wilchek, M., and Frolow, F. (2007). Two structures of alliinase from Alliium sativum L.: apo form and ternary complex with aminoacrylate reaction intermediate covalently bound to the PLP cofactor. Journal of molecular biology 366, 611-625.
Thangaratinam, S., Langenveld, J., Mol, B. W., and Khan, K. S. (2011). Prediction and primary prevention of pre-eclampsia. Best practice & research Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology 25, 419-433.
Tsai, C.-W., Chen, H.-W., Sheen, L.-Y., and Lii, C.-K. (2012). Garlic: Health benefits and actions. BioMedicine 2, 17-29.
Urs, W., Shaw, M. L., and Lancaster, J. E. (1994). Effect of freezing upon alliinase activity in onion extracts and pure enzyme preparations. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 64, 315-318.
Uzun, L., Tuba Dal, M., Yürek, M., Açıkgöz, Z. C., and Durmaz, R. (2019). Antimicrobial activity of garlic derivatives on common causative microorganisms of the external ear canal and chronic middle ear infections. Turkish archives of otorhinolaryngology 57, 161.
Vijayakumar, S., Malaikozhundan, B., Saravanakumar, K., Durán-Lara, E. F., Wang, M.-H., and Vaseeharan, B. (2019). Garlic clove extract assisted silver nanoparticle–Antibacterial, antibiofilm, antihelminthic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and ecotoxicity assessment. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 198, 111558.
Wang, J., Cao, Y., Sun, B., Wang, C., and Mo, Y. (2011). Effect of ultrasound on the activity of alliinase from fresh garlic. Ultrasonics sonochemistry 18, 534-540.
Yin, M.-C., and Cheng, W.-s. (2003). Antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of four garlic-derived organosulfur compounds in ground beef. Meat Science 63, 23-28.
Zhou, J. Q., and Wang, J. W. (2009). Immobilization of alliinase with a water soluble–insoluble reversible N-succinyl-chitosan for allicin production. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 45, 299-304.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 F Ashfaq, Q Ali, MA Haider, MM Hafeez, A Malik
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.