PHENOLIC ACID PROFILING BY RP-HPLC: EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITIES OF CONOCARPUS ERECTUS PLANT EXTRACTS
Keywords:Conocarpus erectus, HPLC, Ellagic Acid, Gallic Acid, Antibacterial, Anticancer, phytochemicals
Due to the versatile application of plants the utilization of plants and their inferred substances builds up day by day for the revelation of new curative agents. Conocarpus erectus has placed in the family Combretaceae, in one of the two species of Conocarpus genus and ordinarily exists in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In some countries it is used as folk medicine for fever, anemia, diabetes, catarrh, diarrhea and conjunctivitis. The current study was carried out to investigate the antibacterial and anticancer properties of the plant. The four defatted methanol extracts of C. erectus different parts (leaves, stems, fruits and bark) showed high antibacterial and anticancer activity even with small quantity of dose. Antimicrobial assay was used to check out the antibacterial activity against 6 bacterial strains Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus Aureus and Klebstella Pneumoniae. The results show that gram positive bacteria show more sensitivity and zone of inhibition as compared to gram negative bacteria. For anticancer activity, MTT assay was performed on HepG2 cells for this purpose. Plant extorts show anticancer activity with a minute quantity. For phytochemical screening defatted methanol extract of Conocarpus erectus was subjected to the silica gel glass column go behind by (RP-HPLC–UV–ESI-MS). It contains phenol such as tannin and flavinoid as major component. Plant contain Ellagic acid; di-hexahydroxy diphenyl, Vascalgin isomer as foremost tannin component. Gallic Acid, Kaempferol on the base of mass spectra and time of retention. The extract of Conocarpus erectus (leaves, shoot, bark & fruit) parts shows high antibacterial, antioxidant and hepta-protective activities due to phenolic content. Tannin has high antibacterial activity than other compound. C.erectus is notable for its folkloristic curative potential. More in vivo and in vitro phytochemical studies are needed to use the plant for prevention and treatment of many diseases.
Abdel-Hameed, E.-S. S., Bazaid, S. A., and Sabra, A. N. A. (2013). Protective effect of conocarpus erectus extracts on CCl4-induced chronic liver injury in mice. Glob J Pharmacol 7, 52-60.
Abdel-Hameed, E.-S. S., Bazaid, S. A., and Shohayeb, M. M. (2014). RP-HPLC-UV-ESI-MS phytochemical analysis of fruits of Conocarpus erectus L. Chemical Papers 68, 1358-1367.
Abdel-Hameed, E.-S. S., Bazaid, S. A., Shohayeb, M. M., El-Sayed, M. M., and El-Wakil, E. A. (2012). Phytochemical studies and evaluation of antioxidant, anticancer and antimicrobial properties of Conocarpus erectus L. growing in Taif, Saudi Arabia. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 2, 93-112.
Adnan, M., Bibi, R., Mussarat, S., Tariq, A., and Shinwari, Z. K. (2014). Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 13, 40.
Ayoub, N. A. (2010). A trimethoxyellagic acid glucuronide from Conocarpus erectus leaves: Isolation, characterization and assay of antioxidant capacity. Pharmaceutical biology 48, 328-332.
Bailey, L. (1976). "Hortus Third: A concise dictionary of plant cultivated in US and Canada," Rep. No. 306. Mac'milan publishing Co. Inc.
Bashir, M., Uzair, M., and Chaudhry, B. A. (2015). A review of phytochemical and biological studies on Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae). Pak J Pharm Res 1, 1-8.
Beutler, J. A. (2009). Natural products as a foundation for drug discovery. Current protocols in pharmacology 46, 9.11. 1-9.11. 21.
Borchardt, J. K. (2002). The Beginnings of Drug Therapy: Ancient Mesopotamian Medicine. Drug news & perspectives 15, 187-192.
Carneiro, D. B., Barboza, M. S. L., and Menezes, M. P. (2010). Plantas nativas úteis na Vila dos Pescadores da Reserva Extrativista Marinha Caeté-Taperaçu, Pará, Brasil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 24, 1027-1033.
Cragg, G. M., Katz, F., Newman, D. J., and Rosenthal, J. (2012). The impact of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity on natural products research. Natural product reports 29, 1407-1423.
Cragg, G. M., and Newman, D. J. (2013). Natural products: a continuing source of novel drug leads. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA)-General Subjects 1830, 3670-3695.
David, B., Wolfender, J.-L., and Dias, D. A. (2015). The pharmaceutical industry and natural products: historical status and new trends. Phytochemistry Reviews 14, 299-315.
Greenwell, M., and Rahman, P. (2015). Medicinal plants: their use in anticancer treatment. International journal of pharmaceutical sciences and research 6, 4103.
Heinrich, M. (2010). 3.12—Ethnopharmacology and drug discovery. Comprehensive Natural Products II. Elsevier, Oxford 351.
Jagessar, R. C., and Cox, M. (2010). Phytochemical screening of the chcl 3 and ch 3 ch 2 oh extract of stems, twigs, roots and barks of Conocarpus erectus. L. International Journal of Academic Research 2.
Khan, A. V., Ahmed, Q. U., Shukla, I., and Khan, A. A. (2012). Antibacterial activity of leaves extracts of Trifolium alexandrinum Linn. against pathogenic bacteria causing tropical diseases. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine 2, 189-194.
Kinghorn, A. D., Pan, L., Fletcher, J. N., and Chai, H. (2011). The relevance of higher plants in lead compound discovery programs. Journal of natural products 74, 1539-1555.
Martins, N., Ferreira, I. C., Barros, L., Carvalho, A. M., Henriques, M., and Silva, S. (2015). Plants used in folk medicine: The potential of their hydromethanolic extracts against Candida species. Industrial crops and products 66, 62-67.
Nascimento, D. K., SOUZA, I. A., OLIVEIRA, A. F. D., Barbosa, M. O., Santana, M. A., Pereira Junior, D. F., Lira, E. C., and VIEIRA, J. R. (2016). Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 88, 1431-1437.
Park, E.-J., and Jhon, D.-Y. (2010). The antioxidant, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition activity, and phenolic compounds of bamboo shoot extracts. LWT-Food Science and Technology 43, 655-659.
Raza, M. A., Anwar, F., Shahwar, D., Majeed, A., Mumtaz, M. W., Danish, M., Nazar, M. F., Perveen, I., and Khan, S. U.-D. (2016). Antioxidant and antiacetylcholine esterase potential of aerial parts of Conocarpus erectus, Ficus variegata and Ficus maclellandii. Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences 29.
Safwat, G., MM, H., and Helmy, A. (2018). The biological activity of conocarpus erectus extracts and their applications as cytotoxic agents. Homologyonline. 2: 171-184.
Santos, D. K. D. d. N., de Almeida, V. S., de Araujo, D. R. C., Harand, W., Soares, A. K. d. A., Moreira, L. R., de Lorena, V. M. B., Magalhães, L. P. M., Ximenes, R. M., and de Sena, K. X. d. F. R. (2018). Evaluation of cytotoxic, immunomodulatory and antibacterial activities of aqueous extract from leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus (Combretaceae). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 70, 1092-1101.
Shohayeb, M., Abdel-Hameed, E., and Bazaid, S. (2013). Antimicrobial activity of tannins and extracts of different parts of Conocarpus erectus L. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 3, 544-553.
von Linsingen, L., Cervi, A. C., and Guimarães, O. (2009). Taxonomic synopsis of the family Combretaceae R. Brown in southern Brazil. Acta Botanica Brasilica 23, 738-750.
West, R. C. (1977). Tidal salt marsh and mangal formations of Middle and South America. In Ecosystems of the World 1, Wet Coastal Ecosystems (Ed. By V.J Chapman), pp. 193-213. Elsevier, Amsterdam. .
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 R Khalil, Q Ali, MM Hafeez, A Malik
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.