IMPROVEMENT FOR BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESS TOLERANCE IN CROP PLANTS
Keywords:biotechnology, biotic, abiotic, stress, environment, herbivorous insects, pathogens, parasites
The field of biotechnology has extraordinary influence on science, law, the administrative condition social insurance, and business throughout the world. As the starting of agriculture, people have been manipulating crops to improve the yield and quantity. Product yields throughout the world are essentially diminished by the activity of herbivorous insects, pathogens, and parasites. Natural environmental stresses make this circumstance significantly worse. Biotechnology can be used to increase the yield of food crops, to improve biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, to modify the traits of the plant (e.g. oil content, percentage of lignin, cell structure), to make the conversion to liquid biofuels more efficient. Various genes have been discovered for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance. The genes discovered for biotic stress are aryloxyalkanoate, dioxygenase, enzymes (aad-1), nitrilase, Cry1Ac, Cry2AB, GTgene, AFP (anti-freezing protein gene) gene, Chitinase II and III gene, and Rps1-k. The genes discovered for abiotic stress are SgNCED1, SgNCED1, USP2, HSP70, BADH, and ALO, PVNCED1, HVA1, LeNCED1. CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) are the short DNA sequences present in bacteria and archaeal genomes which are now currently used by researchers to edit the genome. In different plant species (calli, leaf discs) protoplasts have been successfully used to edit their genome through CRISPR/Cas9 system. The aims of the applications are to increase resistance to abiotic or biotic stress, to engineer metabolic pathways, and to increase grain yield. Incorporation of modern biotechnology, with regular traditional practices in a sustainable way, can fulfill the objective of achieving food security for the present and as well as in future.
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