• Z RIAZ Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Lahore Pakistan
  • S KHALID Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, University of Essex Colchester Campus, UK
  • Q ALI Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan
  • N ASHFAQ Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Lahore Pakistan
  • S Hayat Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Lahore Pakistan
  • F AHMAD School of Food Sciences and Technology, Minhaj University Lahore, Pakistan
  • MS HAIDER Department of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab Lahore, Pakistan



Oreochromis mossambicus, antibiotics, cannabis, microbial, purification


Cannabis sativa L. is one of the oldest medicinal plants used by human. The plant has also been used for fiber, oil production and simply as additive for food products. Cannabis plant extract may be used for anti-bacterial activity. Bacteria present naturally on the skin, in the gut and in the slime of live fish although. They are not harmful for the fish. But fish get infected with most micro-organisms due to various causes. The goal of this study was to identify the targeted bacteria from mucus and gut of tilapia fish, to study the antimicrobial resistance of isolated bacteria. Thirty samples of Oreochromis mossambicus were collected from Tounsa Head Barrage, Punjab Pakistan. Mucus was collected through spatula. In the laboratory, fish was dissected; gut was removed with the help of a sterile dissecting box. Bacteria were isolated and grown on nutrient agar. E. coli, Staphylococcus spp, Klebsiella spp, B. cereus were isolated from the gut and the mucus while Enterobacter bugandensis was separated from the gut only of the fish. Anti-microbial activity test was done then measure the zone of inhibition in mm. The cannabis showed higher inhibition in growth of E. coli, and Klebseilla spp., while cannabis plant extract showed less inhibition in growth of Staphylococcus spp, Enterobacter bugandensis and B. cereus. It was concluded from our research that the cannabis may be used to develop antibacterial medicines.


Download data is not yet available.


Aarestrup, F. M., Wegener, H. C., & Collignon, P. (2008). Resistance in bacteria of the food chain: epidemiology and control strategies. Expert review of anti-infective therapy, 6(5): 733-750.

Adeshina, I., Abdrahman, S. A., & Yusuf, A. A. (2016). Occurrence of Klebsiella species in cultured African catfish in Oyo state, South-West Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal, 37(1): 24-31.

Ainsworth, C. (2015). British Columbia Marine Fisheries Catch Reconstruction: 1873 to 2011. BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly, 18(8): 81-89.

Apun, K., Jong, B. C., & Salleh, M. A. (2000). Screening and isolation of a cellulolytic and amylolytic Bacillus from sago pith waste. The Journal of general and applied microbiology, 46(5): 263-267.

Apun, K., Yusof, A. M., & Jugang, K. (1999). Distribution of bacteria in tropical freshwater fish and ponds. International Journal of Environmental Health Research, 9(4): 285-292

Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei–Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both?.Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 30(1): 1-22.

Borkar, G. M., & Mahajan, A. R. (2017). A secure and trust based on-demand multipath routing scheme for self-organized mobile ad-hoc networks. Wireless Networks, 23(8): 2455-2472.

Borkar, P., Tembhre, M., & Garg, R. K. (2017). Study on isolation and characterization of enterobacteriaceae in teleost fishes of Bhopal Lakes. Asian J. Exp. Sci, 31(1): 25- 29.

Burgdorf, J. R., Kilmer, B., &Pacula, R. L. (2011). Heterogeneity in the composition of marijuana seized in California. Drug and alcohol dependence, 117(1): 59-61.

Calder, P. C., & Yaqoob, P. (2009). Omega‐3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human health outcomes. Biofactors, 35(3): 266-272.

Cascini, F., Aiello, C., & Di Tanna, G. (2012). Increasing delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ-9 THC) content in herbal cannabis over time: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Danelljan, M., Robinson, A., Khan, F. S., &Felsberg, M. (2016, October). Beyond correlation filters: Learning continuous convolution operators for visual tracking. In European conference on computer vision, 23(3):472-488.

Dimitroglou, A., Merrifield, D. L., Carnevali, O., Picchietti, S., Avella, M., Daniels, C., ... & Davies, S. J. (2011). Microbial manipulations to improve fish health and production–a Mediterranean perspective. Fish & shellfish immunology, 30(1): 1-16.

Fischer, B., Jeffries, V., Hall, W., Room, R., Goldner, E., & Rehm, J. (2011). Lower Risk Cannabis Use Guidelines for Canada (LRCUG): a narrative review of evidence and recommendations. Canadian journal of public health, 102(5): 324-327.

Friedlander, M., Theesfeld, C. L., Sugita, M., Fruttiger, M., Thomas, M. A., Chang, S., & Cheresh, D. A. (1996). Involvement of integrins alpha v beta 3 and alpha v beta 5 in ocular neovascular diseases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(18): 9764-9769.

Garcia-Armisen, T., & Servais, P. (2004). Enumeration of viable E. coli in rivers and wastewaters by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Journal of Microbiological Methods, 58(2): 269-279.

Guarrera, P. M., & Savo, V. (2013). Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 146(3): 659-680.

Gyang, S. S., Nyam, D. D., &Sokomba, E. N. (2004). Hypoglycaemic activity of Vernonia amygdalina (chloroform extract) in normoglycaemic and alloxan-induced hyperglycaemic rats. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources, 1(1): 61-66.

Harrow, J., Frankish, A., Gonzalez, J. M., Tapanari, E., Diekhans, M., Kokocinski, F., ... & Hubbard, T. J. (2012). GENCODE: the reference human genome annotation for The ENCODE Project. Genome research, 22(9): 1760-1774.

Henderson, S., Purdie, C., Michie, C., Evans, A., Lerski, R., Johnston, M., ... & Thompson, A. M. (2017). Interim heterogeneity changes measured using entropy texture features on T2-weighted MRI at 3.0 T are associated with pathological response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in primary breast cancer. European radiology, 27(11): 4602-4611.

Hortobagyi, G. N., Stemmer, S. M., Burris, H. A., Yap, Y. S., Sonke, G. S., Paluch-Shimon, S., ... & O’Shaughnessy, J. (2016). Ribociclib as first-line therapy for HR-positive, advanced breast cancer. New England journal of medicine, 375(18): 1738-1748.

Hurwitz, H., Fehrenbacher, L., Novotny, W., Cartwright, T., Hainsworth, J., Heim, W., ... & Kabbinavar, F. (2004). Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer. New England journal of medicine, 350(23): 2335-2342.

Kümmerer, K. (2009). Antibiotics in the aquatic environment–a review–part I. Chemosphere, 75(4): 417-434.

Kuppulakshmi, C., Prakash, M., Gunasekaran, G., Manimegalai, G., & Sarojini, S. (2008). Antibacterial properties of fish mucus from. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences, 1(2): 149-153.

Laith, A. A., Ambak, M. A., Hassan, M., Sheriff, S. M., Nadirah, M., Draman, A. S., ... &Najiah, M. (2017). Molecular identification and histopathological study of natural Streptococcus agalactiae infection in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Veterinary world, 10(1): 101.

Maddah-Ali, M. A., & Niesen, U. (2014). Fundamental limits of caching. IEEE Transactions on information theory, 60(5): 2856-2867.

Moradigaravand, D., Boinett, C. J., Martin, V., Peacock, S. J., & Parkhill, J. (2016). Recent independent emergence of multiple multidrug-resistant Serratia marcescens clones within the United Kingdom and Ireland. Genome research, 26(8): 1101-1109.

Nachimuthu, V. V., Muthurajan, R., Duraialaguraja, S., Sivakami, R., Pandian, B. A., Ponniah, G., ... & Sabariappan, R. (2015). Analysis of population structure and genetic diversity in rice germplasm using SSR markers: an initiative towards association mapping of agronomic traits in Oryza sativa. Rice, 8(1): 1-25.

Natarajan, N., & Rajikkannu, M. (2014). Antimicrobial activity of Bacillus cereus strain isolated from Rohu (Labeo rohita). International Journal Currurnt Microbiololgy Applied Science, 3 (4):74-80.

Novoslavskij, A., Terentjeva, M., Eizenberga, I., Valciņa, O., Bartkevičs, V., & Bērziņš, A. (2016). Major foodborne pathogens in fish and fish products: a review. Annals of microbiology, 66(1): 1-15.

Olafsen, J. A. (2001). Interactions between fish larvae and bacteria in marine aquaculture. Aquaculture, 200(12): 223-247.

Rasool, U., & Hemalatha, S. (2017). Marine endophytic actinomycetes assisted synthesis of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs): characterization and antibacterial efficacy against human pathogens. Materials Letters, 19(4): 176-180.

Sekar, S., & Chandramohan, M. (2008). Phycobiliproteins as a commodity: trends in applied research, patents and commercialization. Journal of Applied Phycology, 20(2): 113-136.

Shimeles, E., Enquselassie, F., Aseffa, A., Tilahun, M., Mekonen, A., Wondimagegn, G., & Hailu, T. (2019). Risk factors for tuberculosis: a case–control study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PLoS One, 14(4):021-4235.

Sivanathan, S., Jivasangeeta, J., Thanaraju, P., Dodo, Y., & Shika, S. (2012). An overview of design deficiencies on building maintenance. OIDA International Journal of Sustainable Development, 5(11): 105-112.

Small, E. (2015). Evolution and classification of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, hemp) in relation to human utilization. The botanical review, 81(3): 189-294.

Taweel, A., Shuhaimi-Othman, M., & Ahmad, A. K. (2013). Assessment of heavy metals in tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from the Langat River and Engineering Lake in Bangi, Malaysia, and evaluation of the health risk from tilapia consumption. Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 9(3): 45-51.

Tilahun, S. L., Ngnotchouye, J. M. T., & Hamadneh, N. N. (2019). Continuous versions of firefly algorithm: a review. Artificial Intelligence Review, 51(3): 445-492.

Wu, A. M., Tan, G. J., Sherman, M. A., Clarke, P., Olafsen, T., Forman, S. J., &Raubitschek, A. A. (2001). Multimerization of a chimeric anti-CD20 single-chain Fv-Fc fusion protein is mediated through variable domain exchange. Protein engineering, 14(12): 1025-1033.

Wyres, K. L., & Holt, K. E. (2016). Klebsiella pneumoniae population genomics and antimicrobial-resistant clones. Trends in microbiology, 24(12): 944-956.

Yagoub, S. O. (2009). Isolation of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. from raw fish sold in fish market in Khartoum state. African Journal of Bacteriology Research, 1(7): 085-088.




How to Cite




Original Research Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 > >>