• S Ishaque Department of Biotechnology, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan
  • A Asrhad Department of Biotechnology, Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore, Pakistan
  • MA Haider Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • F Fatima Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan



infectious diseases, pathogens, bacterial, viral, lab acquired infections, Spanish flu


Microbes have the ability to transmit and reproduce. Pathogenic microbes when released and spread in the environment can cause infectious diseases. This release can be natural, accidental, or intentional. Whatever might be the cause of release it can cause devastation and destruction of not just human health but the entire system of the affected region. It is, therefore, very important to handle these microbes with utmost precautions to avoid any such situation. When released either intentionally or accidentally the best response is to limit its transmission by adopting preventive measures. Most of the lab acquired infections (LAIs) are bacterial and viral in nature. Infectious agents having a potential hazard to cause LAIs are bacillus anthracis, Francisella tularensis, Brucella spp., yersinia pestis, smallpox, VHF agents, and botulinum. Small doses of these agents can be controlled under BSL2 while dealing with large quantities requires BSL3 practices. Hospital-Acquired infections (HAIs) can be transmitted via direct or indirect contact, droplet transmission, and air. Pathogens encountered causing HAIs are usually bacteria, viruses, and mites. The transfer of pathogenic agents in healthcare personnel can be avoided by treating them with vaccines whenever such a risk is expected. They should also be given PPEs and trained to use them in an effective manner. All the hygiene and sterilization procedures should be strictly followed. The cleansing of surgical instruments and the physical environment in hospitals is also very important to prevent HAIs.


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How to Cite

Ishaque, S., Asrhad, A., Haider, M., & Fatima, F. (2021). BIOSAFETY AND BIOSECURITY OF LAB AND HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2021(1).



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