• A Malik Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • K Hafeez Nawaz Sharif Medical College, Gujrat-Pakistan
  • W Nazar Respiratory Reg., Cavan General Hospital, Ireland
  • M Naeem Peadiatric Medicine, Al Aleem Medical college, Gulab devi hospital, Lahore
  • I Ali Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Q Ali Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Ahmed Institute of Agricultural Sciences, University of the Punjab Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Z Mujtaba Institute of Agricultural Extension, Education and Rural Development, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
  • MA Rana Intensive Care Unit, Bahria International Hospital Lahore-Pakistan
  • MM Hafeez Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan



Breast Cancer, Vitamin D deficiency, Reactive Oxygen Species, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, thyroid, hormone


Breast cancer is the most common cause of death worldwide in women.  Several predisposing risk factors have been identified making its incidence constantly rising. The aim of the current study was to analyze thyroid hormone, vitamin D, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as risk factors in the onset of breast cancer. In the present case and control study, a total of two hundred and seventy-four (n=274) participants were included after taken the informed consent individually. The participants were further stratified into two groups. Group A consisted of one hundred and thirty-seven age and sex-matched healthy individuals presented at OPD whereas group B had one hundred and thirty-seven diagnosed cases of breast cancer. Serum vitamin D, thyroid hormone, and 8-OHdG were measured by commercially available ELISA kits by using the blood samples drawn from the study population. Data were analyzed with SPSS V21.0 and a p-value less than 0.05 considered statistically significant. Cases and control were comparable in terms of age, BMI, and gender distribution. Vitamin D deficiency was present in 78.4% of cases and 63.5% of control. (OR 3.83 95% CI 1.38 -10.5) 8-OHdG was present in 56.8% and 11.1% in cases and control respectively (P 0.001). Similarly, MDA was found positive in 67.6% of cases and 21.6% of control (P 0.001). Vitamin D and thyroid hormone deficiency and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are supposed to associate with increased risk in the development of breast cancer.


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How to Cite

Malik, A., Hafeez, K., Nazar, W., Naeem, M., Ali, I., Ali, Q., Ahmed, Mujtaba, Z., Rana, M., & Hafeez, M. (2021). ASSESSMENT OF CONTROVERSIAL RISK FACTORS IN DEVELOPMENT OF BREAST CANCER: A STUDY FROM LOCAL POPULATION. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2021(1).



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