• J Ali Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • Q Ali Institute of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, The University of Lahore, Lahore
  • MM Hafeez Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan
  • A Malik Institute of Molecular Biology & Biotechnology, University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan



COVID-19, diagnosis, epidemiology, treatment, real time PCR


The COVID-19 has affected worldwide population at every level from advance to under developed countries and also majorly affected clinical microbiology labs. This critique covers current issues furthermore, challenges for the research facility determination of diseases brought about by extreme intense respiratory disorder coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the pre analytical stage, gathering the best possible respiratory diseases information at the time from the privilege has become fundamental for a brief and exact basic finding of COVID-19. Appropriate measures are required to protect lab staffs, performing the test outcomes for COVID-19. In the investigative stage, constant converse translation PCR (RT-PCR) tests remain the basic trial of decision for the etiologic determination of SARS-CoV-2 contamination while counteracting agent-based procedures are being presented as supplemental tests. In the post-analytical stage, testing results ought to be cautiously deciphered utilizing both basic and serological findings. At long last, arbitrary access, testing kits accessible for the purpose of care with versatile limits are encouraging the fast and exact finding and observing of SARS-CoV-2 contaminations and extraordinarily aid the control of this episode.


Download data is not yet available.


Abdelmaksoud, A., Kroumpouzos, G., Jafferany, M., Lotti, T., Sadoughifar, R., and Goldust, M. (2020). COVID‐19 in the pediatric population. Dermatologic Therapy, e13339.

Adhikari, S. P., Meng, S., Wu, Y.-J., Mao, Y.-P., Ye, R.-X., Wang, Q.-Z., Sun, C., Sylvia, S., Rozelle, S., and Raat, H. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review. Infectious diseases of poverty 9, 1-12.

Alhazzani, W., Møller, M. H., Arabi, Y. M., Loeb, M., Gong, M. N., Fan, E., Oczkowski, S., Levy, M. M., Derde, L., and Dzierba, A. (2020). Surviving Sepsis Campaign: guidelines on the management of critically ill adults with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Intensive care medicine, 1-34.

Askin, O., Altunkalem, R. N., Altinisik, D. D., Uzuncakmak, T. K., Tursen, U., and Kutlubay, Z. (2020). Cutaneous manifestations in hospitalized patients diagnosed as COVID‐19. Dermatologic Therapy, e13896.

Aziz, H., Filkins, A., and Kwon, Y. K. (2020). Review of COVID-19 Outcomes in Surgical Patients. The American Surgeon, 0003134820934395.

Baj, J., Karakuła-Juchnowicz, H., Teresiński, G., Buszewicz, G., Ciesielka, M., Sitarz, E., Forma, A., Karakuła, K., Flieger, W., and Portincasa, P. (2020). COVID-19: Specific and Non-Specific Clinical Manifestations and Symptoms: The Current State of Knowledge. Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, 1753.

Behbahani, S., Baltz, J., Droms, R., Deng, A. C., Amano, S. U., Levin, N. A., O’Brien, M. C., and Wiss, K. (2020). Sarcoid-like Reaction in a Patient Recovering from COVID-19 Pneumonia. JAAD Case Reports.

Benedetti, F., Snyder, G. A., Giovanetti, M., Angeletti, S., Gallo, R. C., Ciccozzi, M., and Zella, D. (2020). Emerging of a SARS-CoV-2 viral strain with a deletion in nsp1. Journal of Translational Medicine 18, 1-6.

Benvenuto, D., Giovanetti, M., Ciccozzi, A., Spoto, S., Angeletti, S., and Ciccozzi, M. (2020). The 2019‐new coronavirus epidemic: evidence for virus evolution. Journal of medical virology 92, 455-459.

Boettler, T., Newsome, P. N., Mondelli, M. U., Maticic, M., Cordero, E., Cornberg, M., and Berg, T. (2020). Care of patients with liver disease during the COVID-19 pandemic: EASL-ESCMID position paper. JHEP Reports, 100113.

Borba, M. G. S., Val, F. F. A., Sampaio, V. S., Alexandre, M. A. A., Melo, G. C., Brito, M., Mourão, M. P. G., Brito-Sousa, J. D., Baía-da-Silva, D., and Guerra, M. V. F. (2020). Effect of high vs low doses of chloroquine diphosphate as adjunctive therapy for patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA network open 3, e208857-e208857.

Cai, H. (2020). Sex difference and smoking predisposition in patients with COVID-19. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8, e20.

Campos, I. S., Aratani, V. F., Cabral, K. B., Limongi, J. E., and de Oliveira, S. V. (2020). A vulnerability analysis for the management of and response to the COVID-19 epidemic in the second most populous state in Brazil. medRxiv.

Cao, B., Wang, Y., Wen, D., Liu, W., Wang, J., Fan, G., Ruan, L., Song, B., Cai, Y., and Wei, M. (2020). A trial of lopinavir–ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. New England Journal of Medicine.

Castagnoli, R., Votto, M., Licari, A., Brambilla, I., Bruno, R., Perlini, S., Rovida, F., Baldanti, F., and Marseglia, G. L. (2020). Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children and adolescents: a systematic review. JAMA pediatrics.

Castelli, V., Cimini, A., and Ferri, C. (2020). Cytokine Storm in COVID-19:“When You Come Out of the Storm, You Won’t Be the Same Person Who Walked in”. infection 26, 31-33.

Cattaneo, M., Bertinato, E. M., Birocchi, S., Brizio, C., Malavolta, D., Manzoni, M., Muscarella, G., and Orlandi, M. (2020). Pulmonary embolism or pulmonary thrombosis in COVID-19? Is the recommendation to use high-dose heparin for thromboprophylaxis justified?

Chakraborty, S., and Das, G. (2020). Secondary infection by anaerobic bacteria possibly ensues a battle for oxygen in SARS-Cov2 infected patients: anaerobe-targeting antibiotics (like doxycycline/Metronidazole) to supplement Azithromycin in the treatment regimen of COVID19?

Chan, K. W., Wong, V. T., and Tang, S. C. W. (2020). COVID-19: An update on the epidemiological, clinical, preventive and therapeutic evidence and guidelines of integrative Chinese–Western medicine for the management of 2019 novel coronavirus disease. The American journal of Chinese medicine 48, 737-762.

Chen, H., Guo, J., Wang, C., Luo, F., Yu, X., Zhang, W., Li, J., Zhao, D., Xu, D., and Gong, Q. (2020a). Clinical characteristics and intrauterine vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in nine pregnant women: a retrospective review of medical records. The Lancet 395, 809-815.

Chen, T., Wu, D., Chen, H., Yan, W., Yang, D., Chen, G., Ma, K., Xu, D., Yu, H., and Wang, H. (2020b). Clinical characteristics of 113 deceased patients with coronavirus disease 2019: retrospective study. Bmj 368.

Clerkin, K. J., Fried, J. A., Raikhelkar, J., Sayer, G., Griffin, J. M., Masoumi, A., Jain, S. S., Burkhoff, D., Kumaraiah, D., and Rabbani, L. (2020). COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 141, 1648-1655.

Contini, C., Di Nuzzo, M., Barp, N., Bonazza, A., De Giorgio, R., Tognon, M., and Rubino, S. (2020). The novel zoonotic COVID-19 pandemic: An expected global health concern. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 14, 254-264.

Corona, G., Baldi, E., Isidori, A., Paoli, D., Pallotti, F., De Santis, L., Francavilla, F., La Vignera, S., Selice, R., and Caponecchia, L. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infection, male fertility and sperm cryopreservation: a position statement of the Italian Society of Andrology and Sexual Medicine (SIAMS)(Società Italiana di Andrologia e Medicina della Sessualità). Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 1.

COVID, T. C., and Team, R. (2020). Severe Outcomes Among Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-United States, February 12-March 16, 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 69, 343-346.

Croda, J., Oliveira, W. K. d., Frutuoso, R. L., Mandetta, L. H., Baia-da-Silva, D. C., Brito-Sousa, J. D., Monteiro, W. M., and Lacerda, M. V. G. (2020). COVID-19 in Brazil: advantages of a socialized unified health system and preparation to contain cases. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical 53.

D’Marco, L., Puchades, M. J., Romero-Parra, M., Gimenez-Civera, E., Soler, M. J., Ortiz, A., and Gorriz, J. L. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 in chronic kidney disease. Clinical kidney journal 13, 297-306.

Deng, L., Li, C., Zeng, Q., Liu, X., Li, X., Zhang, H., Hong, Z., and Xia, J. (2020). Arbidol combined with LPV/r versus LPV/r alone against Corona Virus Disease 2019: A retrospective cohort study. Journal of Infection.

Dhama, K., Sharun, K., Tiwari, R., Sircar, S., Bhat, S., Malik, Y. S., Singh, K. P., Chaicumpa, W., Bonilla-Aldana, D. K., and Rodriguez-Morales, A. J. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019–COVID-19.

Diao, B., Wen, K., Chen, J., Liu, Y., Yuan, Z., Han, C., Chen, J., Pan, Y., Chen, L., and Dan, Y. (2020). Diagnosis of acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection by detection of nucleocapsid protein. medRxiv.

Dogan, M., Kozhaya, L., Placek, L., Gunter, C., Yigit, M., Hardy, R., Plassmeyer, M., Coatney, P., Lillard, K., and Bukhari, Z. (2020). Novel SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody and neutralization assays reveal wide range of humoral immune response during COVID-19. medRxiv.

Driggin, E., Madhavan, M. V., Bikdeli, B., Chuich, T., Laracy, J., Biondi-Zoccai, G., Brown, T. S., Der Nigoghossian, C., Zidar, D. A., and Haythe, J. (2020). Cardiovascular considerations for patients, health care workers, and health systems during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 75, 2352-2371.

Emanuel, E. J., Persad, G., Upshur, R., Thome, B., Parker, M., Glickman, A., Zhang, C., Boyle, C., Smith, M., and Phillips, J. P. (2020). Fair allocation of scarce medical resources in the time of Covid-19. Mass Medical Soc.

Faiq, M., Kumar, A., Singh, H., Pareek, V., Qadri, R., Raza, K., Kumari, C., Narayan, R., Kumar, P., and Kulandhasamy, M. (2020). COVID-19: A review on molecular basis, pathogenic mechanisms, therapeutic aspects and future projections.

Fang, L., Karakiulakis, G., and Roth, M. (2020). Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine 8, e21.

Ghazal, S., Litvinov, I. V., Aljahani, N., Jfri, A., and Netchiporouk, E. (2020). Cutaneous manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection-what do we know so far? J Cutan Med Surg 24, 416-417.

Gianotti, R., Recalcati, S., Fantini, F., Riva, C., Milani, M., Dainese, E., and Boggio, F. (2020). Histopathological study of a broad spectrum of skin dermatoses in patients affected or highly suspected of infection by COVID-19 in the northern part of Italy: analysis of the many faces of the viral-induced skin diseases in previous and new reported cases. The American Journal of Dermatopathology 42, 564.

Goldman, I. A., Ye, K., and Scheinfeld, M. H. (2020). Lower extremity arterial thrombosis associated with COVID-19 is characterized by greater thrombus burden and increased rate of amputation and death. Radiology, 202348.

Gralinski, L. E., and Menachery, V. D. (2020). Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses 12, 135.

Grech, V. (2020). COVID-19 admissions calculators: General population and paediatric cohort. Early Human Development, 105043.

Guan, W.-j., Ni, Z.-y., Hu, Y., Liang, W.-h., Ou, C.-q., He, J.-x., Liu, L., Shan, H., Lei, C.-l., and Hui, D. S. (2020). Clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 in China. New England journal of medicine 382, 1708-1720.

Guo, Y.-R., Cao, Q.-D., Hong, Z.-S., Tan, Y.-Y., Chen, S.-D., Jin, H.-J., Tan, K.-S., Wang, D.-Y., and Yan, Y. (2020). The origin, transmission and clinical therapies on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak–an update on the status. Military Medical Research 7, 1-10.

Gupta, R., Ghosh, A., Singh, A. K., and Misra, A. (2020). Clinical considerations for patients with diabetes in times of COVID-19 epidemic. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome 14, 211.

Harahap, S. R. (2020). Konseling: Kebiasaan Belajar Siswa Dimasa Pandemi Covid-19. Jurnal Pendidikan dan Konseling 10.

Hassan, S. A., Sheikh, F. N., Jamal, S., Ezeh, J. K., and Akhtar, A. (2020). Coronavirus (COVID-19): a review of clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment. Cureus 12.

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., Zhang, L., Fan, G., Xu, J., and Gu, X. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The lancet 395, 497-506.

Huarcaya-Victoria, J. (2020). Consideraciones sobre la salud mental en la pandemia de COVID-19. Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública 37.

Hurst, M., and Faulds, D. (2000). Lopinavir. Drugs 60, 1371-1379.

Hussain, A., Bhowmik, B., and do Vale Moreira, N. C. (2020). COVID-19 and diabetes: Knowledge in progress. Diabetes research and clinical practice, 108142.

Islam, M. R., Hoque, M. N., Rahman, M. S., Alam, A. R. U., Akther, M., Puspo, J. A., Akter, S., Sultana, M., Crandall, K. A., and Hossain, M. A. (2020). Genome-wide analysis of SARS-CoV-2 virus strains circulating worldwide implicates heterogeneity. Scientific reports 10, 1-9.

Jafarzadeh, A., Chauhan, P., Saha, B., Jafarzadeh, S., and Nemati, M. (2020). Contribution of monocytes and macrophages to the local tissue inflammation and cytokine storm in COVID-19: Lessons from SARS and MERS, and potential therapeutic interventions. Life sciences, 118102.

Jia, J. L., Kamceva, M., Rao, S. A., and Linos, E. (2020a). Cutaneous manifestations of COVID-19: a preliminary review. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 83, 687-690.

Jia, X., Zhang, P., Tian, Y., Wang, J., Zeng, H., Wang, J., Jiao, L., Chen, Z., Zhang, L., and He, H. (2020b). Clinical significance of IgM and IgG test for diagnosis of highly suspected COVID-19 infection. medRxiv.

Jouzdani, J. (2020). Fight against COVID-19: A global outbreak response management performance view. Journal of project management 5, 151-156.

Kandeel, M., Ibrahim, A., Fayez, M., and Al‐Nazawi, M. (2020). From SARS and MERS CoVs to SARS‐CoV‐2: Moving toward more biased codon usage in viral structural and nonstructural genes. Journal of medical virology 92, 660-666.

Kaushik, A., Parsad, D., and Kumaran, M. S. (2020). Urticaria in the times of COVID‐19. Dermatologic Therapy.

Kaya, G., Kaya, A., and Saurat, J.-H. (2020). Clinical and histopathological features and potential pathological mechanisms of skin lesions in COVID-19: Review of the literature. Dermatopathology 7, 3-16.

Khailany, R., Safdar, M., and Ozaslan, M. (2020). Genomic characterization of a novel SARS-CoV-2. Gene Rep 113: 100682.

Klok, F., Kruip, M., Van der Meer, N., Arbous, M., Gommers, D., Kant, K., Kaptein, F., van Paassen, J., Stals, M., and Huisman, M. (2020). Incidence of thrombotic complications in critically ill ICU patients with COVID-19. Thrombosis research.

La Vignera, S., Cannarella, R., Condorelli, R. A., Torre, F., Aversa, A., and Calogero, A. E. (2020). Sex-specific SARS-CoV-2 mortality: among hormone-modulated ACE2 expression, risk of venous thromboembolism and hypovitaminosis d. International journal of molecular sciences 21, 2948.

Ladha, M. A., Luca, N., Constantinescu, C., Naert, K., and Ramien, M. L. (2020). Approach to Chilblains During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery, 1203475420937978.

Lake, M. A. (2020). What we know so far: COVID-19 current clinical knowledge and research. Clinical Medicine 20, 124.

Lebeau, G., Vagner, D., Frumence, É., Ah-Pine, F., Guillot, X., Nobécourt, E., Raffray, L., and Gasque, P. (2020). Deciphering SARS-CoV-2 Virologic and Immunologic Features. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21, 5932.

Lechien, J. R., Chiesa-Estomba, C. M., De Siati, D. R., Horoi, M., Le Bon, S. D., Rodriguez, A., Dequanter, D., Blecic, S., El Afia, F., and Distinguin, L. (2020). Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions as a clinical presentation of mild-to-moderate forms of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a multicenter European study. European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, 1-11.

Li, L. q., Huang, T., Wang, Y. q., Wang, Z. p., Liang, Y., Huang, T. b., Zhang, H. y., Sun, W., and Wang, Y. (2020a). COVID‐19 patients' clinical characteristics, discharge rate, and fatality rate of meta‐analysis. Journal of medical virology 92, 577-583.

Li, Q., Guan, X., Wu, P., Wang, X., Zhou, L., Tong, Y., Ren, R., Leung, K. S., Lau, E. H., and Wong, J. Y. (2020b). Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus–infected pneumonia. New England Journal of Medicine.

Lippi, G., and Plebani, M. (2020). Laboratory abnormalities in patients with COVID-2019 infection. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) 58, 1131-1134.

Liu, G., Hong, T., and Yang, J. (2020). A Single Large Dose of Vitamin D Could be Used as a Means of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Prevention and Treatment. Drug Design, Development and Therapy 14, 3429.

Long, B., Brady, W. J., Koyfman, A., and Gottlieb, M. (2020). Cardiovascular complications in COVID-19. The American journal of emergency medicine.

Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., Wu, H., Wang, W., Song, H., Huang, B., and Zhu, N. (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet 395, 565-574.

Magro, C., Mulvey, J., Laurence, J., Sanders, S., Crowson, A., Grossman, M., Harp, J., and Nuovo, G. (2020). The differing pathophysiologies that underlie COVID‐19‐associated perniosis and thrombotic retiform purpura: a case series. British Journal of Dermatology.

Mannan, D. K. A., and Mannan, K. A. (2020). Knowledge and perception towards Novel Coronavirus (COVID 19) in Bangladesh. International Research Journal of Business and Social Science 6.

Mansourabadi, A. H., Sadeghalvad, M., Mohammadi-Motlagh, H.-R., and Rezaei, N. (2020). The immune system as a target for therapy of SARS-CoV-2: A systematic review of the current immunotherapies for COVID-19. Life sciences, 118185.

Mastrolonardo, M., Romita, P., Bonifazi, E., Giuffrida, R., Lotti, T., Foti, C., and Bonamonte, D. (2020). The management of the outbreak of acral skin manifestations in asymptomatic children during COVID‐19 era. Dermatologic Therapy, e13617.

McGonagle, D., Sharif, K., O'Regan, A., and Bridgewood, C. (2020). Interleukin-6 use in COVID-19 pneumonia related macrophage activation syndrome. Autoimmunity reviews, 102537.

Mehta, P., McAuley, D. F., Brown, M., Sanchez, E., Tattersall, R. S., Manson, J. J., and Collaboration, H. A. S. (2020). COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet (London, England) 395, 1033.

Menter, T., Haslbauer, J. D., Nienhold, R., Savic, S., Hopfer, H., Deigendesch, N., Frank, S., Turek, D., Willi, N., and Pargger, H. (2020). Post‐mortem examination of COVID19 patients reveals diffuse alveolar damage with severe capillary congestion and variegated findings of lungs and other organs suggesting vascular dysfunction. Histopathology.

Mohammed, M., Syamsudin, H., Al-Zubaidi, S., AKS, R. R., and Yusuf, E. (2020). Novel COVID-19 detection and diagnosis system using IOT based smart helmet. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation 24.

Montalvan, V., Lee, J., Bueso, T., De Toledo, J., and Rivas, K. (2020). Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 and other coronavirus infections: A systematic review. Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 194, 105921.

Morokutti-Kurz, M., Graf, P., Grassauer, A., and Prieschl-Grassauer, E. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 in-vitro neutralization assay reveals inhibition of virus entry by iota-carrageenan. BioRxiv.

Neri, I., Virdi, A., Corsini, I., Guglielmo, A., Lazzarotto, T., Gabrielli, L., Misciali, C., Patrizi, A., and Lanari, M. (2020). Major cluster of paediatric'true'primary chilblains during the COVID-19 pandemic: a consequence of lifestyle changes due to lockdown. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV.

Nishiga, M., Wang, D. W., Han, Y., Lewis, D. B., and Wu, J. C. (2020). COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease: from basic mechanisms to clinical perspectives. Nature Reviews Cardiology, 1-16.

Nishiura, H., Oshitani, H., Kobayashi, T., Saito, T., Sunagawa, T., Matsui, T., Wakita, T., COVID, M., and Suzuki, M. (2020). Closed environments facilitate secondary transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). medRxiv.

Nobari, N. N., and Goodarzi, A. (2020). Patients with specific skin disorders who are affected by COVID‐19: What do experiences say about management strategies? A systematic review. Dermatologic Therapy, e13867.

Noval, M. G., Kaczmarek, M. E., Koide, A., Rodriguez-Rodriguez, B. A., Louie, P., Tada, T., Hattori, T., Panchenko, T., Romero, L. A., and Teng, K. W. (2020). High titers of multiple antibody isotypes against the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain and nucleoprotein associate with better neutralization. bioRxiv.

O’Dowd, K., Nair, K. M., Forouzandeh, P., Mathew, S., Grant, J., Moran, R., Bartlett, J., Bird, J., and Pillai, S. C. (2020). Face Masks and Respirators in the Fight against the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of Current Materials, Advances and Future Perspectives. Materials 13, 3363.

Ogen, Y. (2020). Assessing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels as a contributing factor to the coronavirus (COVID-19) fatality rate. Science of The Total Environment, 138605.

Organization, W. H. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): situation report, 72.

Pan, F., Ye, T., Sun, P., Gui, S., Liang, B., Li, L., Zheng, D., Wang, J., Hesketh, R. L., and Yang, L. (2020). Time course of lung changes on chest CT during recovery from 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pneumonia. Radiology.

Pangti, R., Gupta, S., Nischal, N., and Trikha, A. (2020). Recognizable vascular skin manifestations of SARS CoV‐2 infection are uncommon in patients with skin‐of‐color. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology.

Paoli, D., Pallotti, F., Colangelo, S., Basilico, F., Mazzuti, L., Turriziani, O., Antonelli, G., Lenzi, A., and Lombardo, F. (2020). Study of SARS-CoV-2 in semen and urine samples of a volunteer with positive naso-pharyngeal swab. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 1-4.

Pastor, C. K. L. (2020). Sentiment Analysis on Synchronous Online Delivery of Instruction due to Extreme Community Quarantine in the Philippines caused by Covid-19 Pandemic. Asian Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies 3, 1-6.

Pei, G., Zhang, Z., Peng, J., Liu, L., Zhang, C., Yu, C., Ma, Z., Huang, Y., Liu, W., and Yao, Y. (2020). Renal involvement and early prognosis in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 31, 1157-1165.

Pons, S., Fodil, S., Azoulay, E., and Zafrani, L. (2020). The vascular endothelium: the cornerstone of organ dysfunction in severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. Critical care 24, 1-8.

Poyiadji, N., Shahin, G., Noujaim, D., Stone, M., Patel, S., and Griffith, B. (2020). COVID-19–associated acute hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalopathy: CT and MRI features. Radiology, 201187.

Qiang, X., Zhu, S., Li, J., Wang, P., Tracey, K. J., and Wang, H. (2020). Monoclonal Antibodies Capable of Binding SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Receptor Binding Motif Specifically Prevent GM-CSF Induction. bioRxiv.

Rajkumar, R. P. (2020). COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian journal of psychiatry, 102066.

Rapkiewicz, A. V., Mai, X., Carsons, S. E., Pittaluga, S., Kleiner, D. E., Berger, J. S., Thomas, S., Adler, N. M., Charytan, D. M., and Gasmi, B. (2020). Megakaryocytes and platelet-fibrin thrombi characterize multi-organ thrombosis at autopsy in COVID-19: a case series. EClinicalMedicine 24, 100434.

Ray, A., Singh, K., Chattopadhyay, S., Mehdi, F., Batra, G., Gupta, A., Agarwal, A., Bhavesh, M., Sahni, S., and Chaithra, R. (2020). Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in hospitalized patients at a tertiary referral center in North India. medRxiv.

Recalcati, S., Barbagallo, T., Frasin, L., Prestinari, F., Cogliardi, A., Provero, M., Dainese, E., Vanzati, A., and Fantini, F. (2020). Acral cutaneous lesions in the time of COVID‐19. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

Remuzzi, A., and Remuzzi, G. (2020). COVID-19 and Italy: what next? The Lancet.

Rezaei, N. (2020). COVID-19 and Medical Biotechnology. Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology 12, 139-139.

Roca-Ginés, J., Torres-Navarro, I., Sánchez-Arráez, J., Abril-Pérez, C., Sabalza-Baztán, O., Pardo-Granell, S., i Cózar, V. M., Botella-Estrada, R., and Évole-Buselli, M. (2020). Assessment of acute acral lesions in a case series of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA dermatology.

Saadat, S., Rawtani, D., and Hussain, C. M. (2020). Environmental perspective of COVID-19. Science of The Total Environment, 138870.

Schwartz, A. M., Wilson, J. M., Boden, S. D., Moore Jr, T. J., Bradbury Jr, T. L., and Fletcher, N. D. (2020). Managing resident workforce and education during the COVID-19 pandemic: evolving strategies and lessons learned. JBJS Open Access 5, e0045.

Seirafianpour, F., Sodagar, S., Pour Mohammad, A., Panahi, P., Mozafarpoor, S., Almasi, S., and Goodarzi, A. (2020). Cutaneous manifestations and considerations in COVID‐19 pandemic: A systematic review. Dermatologic therapy, e13986.

Shams, S. A., Haleem, A., and Javaid, M. (2020). Analyzing COVID-19 pandemic for unequal distribution of tests, identified cases, deaths, and fatality rates in the top 18 countries. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 14, 953-961.

Sheahan, T. P., Sims, A. C., Leist, S. R., Schäfer, A., Won, J., Brown, A. J., Montgomery, S. A., Hogg, A., Babusis, D., and Clarke, M. O. (2020). Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir, and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nature communications 11, 1-14.

Shereen, M. A., Khan, S., Kazmi, A., Bashir, N., and Siddique, R. (2020). COVID-19 infection: Origin, transmission, and characteristics of human coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research.

Siddiqi, H. K., and Mehra, M. R. (2020). COVID-19 illness in native and immunosuppressed states: A clinical–therapeutic staging proposal. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 39, 405.

Singh, A. K., Gupta, R., Ghosh, A., and Misra, A. (2020). Diabetes in COVID-19: Prevalence, pathophysiology, prognosis and practical considerations. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.

Smith, G. M., and Regnery, D. C. (1950). Inheritance of sexuality in Chlamydomonas reinhardi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 36, 246.

Søreide, K., Hallet, J., Matthews, J. B., Schnitzbauer, A. A., Line, P. D., Lai, P., Otero, J., Callegaro, D., Warner, S. G., and Baxter, N. N. (2020). Immediate and long‐term impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic on delivery of surgical services. The British journal of surgery.

Sultan, S., Altayar, O., Siddique, S. M., Davitkov, P., Feuerstein, J. D., Lim, J. K., Falck-Ytter, Y., and El-Serag, H. B. (2020). AGA Institute rapid review of the gastrointestinal and liver manifestations of COVID-19, meta-analysis of international data, and recommendations for the consultative management of patients with COVID-19. Gastroenterology 159, 320-334. e27.

Tang, X., Wu, C., Li, X., Song, Y., Yao, X., Wu, X., Duan, Y., Zhang, H., Wang, Y., and Qian, Z. (2020). On the origin and continuing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. National Science Review.

Terpos, E., Ntanasis‐Stathopoulos, I., Elalamy, I., Kastritis, E., Sergentanis, T. N., Politou, M., Psaltopoulou, T., Gerotziafas, G., and Dimopoulos, M. A. (2020). Hematological findings and complications of COVID‐19. American journal of hematology.

Trilla, A. (2020). Un mundo, una salud: la epidemia por el nuevo coronavirus COVID-19. Medicina Clínica 154, 175.

Troyer, E. A., Kohn, J. N., and Hong, S. (2020). Are we facing a crashing wave of neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19? Neuropsychiatric symptoms and potential immunologic mechanisms. Brain, behavior, and immunity.

Tu, H., Tu, S., Gao, S., Shao, A., and Sheng, J. (2020). The epidemiological and clinical features of COVID-19 and lessons from this global infectious public health event. Journal of Infection.

Velavan, T. P., and Meyer, C. G. (2020). The COVID‐19 epidemic. Tropical medicine & international health 25, 278.

Wang, S., Kang, B., Ma, J., Zeng, X., Xiao, M., Guo, J., Cai, M., Yang, J., Li, Y., and Meng, X. (2020a). A deep learning algorithm using CT images to screen for Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19). MedRxiv.

Wang, Z., Chen, X., Lu, Y., Chen, F., and Zhang, W. (2020b). Clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four cases with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia receiving combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment. Bioscience trends.

West, R., Michie, S., Rubin, G. J., and Amlôt, R. (2020). Applying principles of behaviour change to reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Nature Human Behaviour, 1-9.

Wichmann, D., Sperhake, J.-P., Lütgehetmann, M., Steurer, S., Edler, C., Heinemann, A., Heinrich, F., Mushumba, H., Kniep, I., and Schröder, A. S. (2020). Autopsy findings and venous thromboembolism in patients with COVID-19: a prospective cohort study. Annals of internal medicine.

Wortham, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of persons who died with COVID-19—United States, February 12–May 18, 2020. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report 69.

Wu, Y., Xu, X., Chen, Z., Duan, J., Hashimoto, K., Yang, L., Liu, C., and Yang, C. (2020). Nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Brain, behavior, and immunity.

Wu, Z., and McGoogan, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Jama 323, 1239-1242.

Xu, Z., Shi, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, J., Huang, L., Zhang, C., Liu, S., Zhao, P., Liu, H., and Zhu, L. (2020). Pathological findings of COVID-19 associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The Lancet respiratory medicine 8, 420-422.

Yang, J., Zheng, Y., Gou, X., Pu, K., Chen, Z., Guo, Q., Ji, R., Wang, H., Wang, Y., and Zhou, Y. (2020a). Prevalence of comorbidities and its effects in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 94, 91-95.

Yang, X., Yu, Y., Xu, J., Shu, H., Liu, H., Wu, Y., Zhang, L., Yu, Z., Fang, M., and Yu, T. (2020b). Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.

Yazdanpanah, F., Hamblin, M. R., and Rezaei, N. (2020). The immune system and COVID-19: Friend or foe? Life Sciences, 117900.

Yi, Y., Lagniton, P. N., Ye, S., Li, E., and Xu, R.-H. (2020). COVID-19: what has been learned and to be learned about the novel coronavirus disease. International journal of biological sciences 16, 1753.

Yuan, S., Liao, Z., Huang, H., Jiang, B., Zhang, X., Wang, Y., and Zhao, M. (2020). Comparison of the indicators of psychological stress in the population of Hubei Province and non-endemic provinces in China during two weeks during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in February 2020. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research 26, e923767-1.

Zhang, J.-j., Dong, X., Cao, Y.-y., Yuan, Y.-d., Yang, Y.-b., Yan, Y.-q., Akdis, C. A., and Gao, Y.-d. (2020). Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS‐CoV‐2 in Wuhan, China. Allergy.

Zhu, N., Zhang, D., Wang, W., Li, X., Yang, B., Song, J., Zhao, X., Huang, B., Shi, W., and Lu, R. (2020). A novel coronavirus from patients with pneumonia in China, 2019. New England Journal of Medicine.

Zu, Z. Y., Jiang, M. D., Xu, P. P., Chen, W., Ni, Q. Q., Lu, G. M., and Zhang, L. J. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a perspective from China. Radiology, 200490.




How to Cite

Ali, J., Ali, Q., Hafeez, M., & Malik, A. (2020). CLINICAL FEATURES, DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF COVID-19. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2020(1).



Review Articles

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 > >>