• H HAMID Department of Urology, Bannu Medical College, Bannu, Pakistan
  • A GHANI Department of surgery Bannu medical College, Bannu, Pakistan
  • K FAROOQ Department of Urology Lady Reading Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan
  • R ULLAH Department of surgery Bannu medical College, Bannu, Pakistan
  • F BEGUM Department of Radiology Pakistan International Medical College Peshawar, Pakistan
  • IA KHAN Department of Urology, Bannu Medical College, Bannu, Pakistan



Frequency, urological carcinoma, gross haematuria, urology


Gross haematuria is one of the most prevalent urological conditions with a high risk of morbidity and death. Numerous studies showed that people with gross haematuria had a greater chance of acquiring urological carcinomas and those with gross haematuria had a high incidence of malignant cells. The current study was carried out to determine the frequency of urological carcinoma amongst patients presenting with gross haematuria. The current study was cross-sectional, done at the Urology Department Khalifa Gul Nawaz Teaching Hospital for six months from January 2023 to June 2023. In the current study, 170 patients were enrolled. Age, gender, place of residence, and socioeconomic level were all noted for patients. All the collected data was analyzed by using 23 version of SPSS. A total of 170 patients were enrolled in the current study. The male participants were 128 (75.29%) and female patients were 42 (24.71%. Most of the patients 82 (48.23%), were 40-50 years old. The frequency of urological carcinomas was observed in 29 (17.06%). According to the findings of our investigation, urological carcinoma is a common problem. The most prevalent causes of gross haematuria were urinary tract infections and trauma. Since urothelial tumors may be efficiently handled with a better long-term result if found early, general practitioners should order an ultrasound scan for individuals presenting with gross haematuria.


Download data is not yet available.


Awan, S. U. D., Bhatti, A. N., Fakhr, A., Awan, A. N., & Fiyyaz, H. (2018). fre#quency of urological carcinomas presenting as gross haematuria in punjab pakistan and recommendation for its early diagnosis. Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal, 68(2).

Britton, J. P., Dowell, A. C., Whelan, P., & Harris, C. M. (1992). A community study of bladder cancer screening by the detection of occult urinary bleeding. The Journal of urology, 148(3), 788-790.

Buteau, A., Seideman, C. A., Svatek, R. S., Youssef, R. F., Chakrabarti, G., Reed, G., . . . Lotan, Y. (2014). What is evaluation of hematuria by primary care physicians? Use of electronic medical records to assess practice patterns with intermediate follow-up. Paper presented at the Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations.

Cohen, R. A., & Brown, R. S. (2003). Microscopic hematuria. New England Journal of Medicine, 348(23), 2330-2338.

Cowan, N. C. (2012). CT urography for hematuria. Nature Reviews Urology, 9(4), 218-226.

Davis, R., Jones, J. S., Barocas, D. A., Castle, E. P., Lang, E. K., Leveillee, R. J., . . . Turk, T. M. (2012). Diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up of asymptomatic microhematuria (AMH) in adults: AUA guideline. The Journal of urology, 188(6S), 2473-2481.

Gofrit, O. N., Katz, R., Shapiro, A., Yutkin, V., Pizov, G., Zorn, K. C., . . . Pode, D. (2013). Gross hematuria in patients with prostate cancer: etiology and management. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2013.

Halpern, J. A., Chughtai, B., & Ghomrawi, H. (2017). Cost-effectiveness of common diagnostic approaches for evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. JAMA internal medicine, 177(6), 800-807.

Hertz, A. M., Janssen, K. M., George, E. I., & Brand, T. C. (2019). Time to Resolution of Microscopic Hematuria after Robotic Radical Prostatectomy. Urology Practice, 6(5), 322-326.

Hiatt, R. A., & Ordonez, J. D. (1994). Dipstick urinalysis screening, asymptomatic microhematuria, and subsequent urological cancers in a population-based sample. Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention: a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 3(5), 439-443.

Johnson, E. K., Daignault, S., Zhang, Y., & Lee, C. T. (2008). Patterns of hematuria referral to urologists: does a gender disparity exist? Urology, 72(3), 498-502.

Lotan, Y., Capitanio, U., Shariat, S. F., Hutterer, G. C., & Karakiewicz, P. I. (2009). Impact of clinical factors, including a point‐of‐care nuclear matrix protein‐22 assay and cytology, on bladder cancer detection. BJU international, 103(10), 1368-1374.

Messing, E. M., Young, T. B., Hunt, V. B., Roecker, E. B., Vaillancourt, A. M., Hisgen, W. J., . . . Wegenke, J. D. (1992). Home screening for hematuria: results of a multi-clinic study. The Journal of urology, 148(2), 289-292.

Nieder, A. M., Lotan, Y., Nuss, G. R., Langston, J. P., Vyas, S., Manoharan, M., & Soloway, M. S. (2010). Are patients with hematuria appropriately referred to Urology? A multi-institutional questionnaire based survey. Paper presented at the Urologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations.

Subak, L. L., & Grady, D. (2017). Asymptomatic microscopic hematuria—rethinking the diagnostic algorithm. JAMA internal medicine, 177(6), 808-809.

Summerton, N., Mann, S., Rigby, A. S., Ashley, J., Palmer, S., & Hetherington, J. W. (2002). Patients with new onset haematuria: assessing the discriminant value of clinical information in relation to urological malignancies. British journal of general practice, 52(477), 284-289.

Tan, W. S., Ahmad, A., Feber, A., Mostafid, H., Cresswell, J., Fankhauser, C. D., . . . Kelly, J. (2019). Development and validation of a haematuria cancer risk score to identify patients at risk of harbouring cancer. Journal of internal medicine, 285(4), 436-445.

Tan, W. S., Sarpong, R., Khetrapal, P., Rodney, S., Mostafid, H., Cresswell, J., . . . Watson, D. (2018). Can renal and bladder ultrasound replace computerized tomography urogram in patients investigated for microscopic hematuria? The Journal of urology, 200(5), 973-980.




How to Cite

HAMID, H., GHANI, A., FAROOQ, K., ULLAH, R., BEGUM, F., & KHAN, I. . (2023). FREQUENCY OF UROLOGICAL CARCINOMA IN PATIENTS PRESENTING WITH GROSS HAEMATURIA. Biological and Clinical Sciences Research Journal, 2023(1), 471.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>