GENOTYPIC VARIABILITY & ASSOCIATION STUDIES OF YIELD AND RELATED TRAITS OF WHEAT GROWN UNDER WATER STRESS CONDITIONS
Keywords:climate change, wheat, drought, grain yield, spikelets
Climate Change is a serious risk to crops as it harnesses the survival of plants and is a major cause for drought stress in many areas of the world including Pakistan. Most of the cultivated area in Pakistan is vulnerable to drought conditions brought about by climate change, leading to fewer productive harvests. Wheat is Pakistan's major staple food crop, but it needs to be enhanced and developed to be more tolerant to drought conditions. We all know that future water crisis would affect us in many ways, and we need plant, which can cope up with water deficiency, otherwise it will be leading grains type of country in near future. To investigate the drought tolerance in wheat, we cultivated fifteen wheat genotypes in a dry and arid region of Layyah under water stress. The plants were irrigated at the initial stages and left them to grow outdoors without irrigation for six weeks. The study's objective was to evaluate these mutants' performance under drought stress. Data were collected for yield and yield-related traits, including plant height, number of tillers, number of spikes, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, grains per spike (each with a part), and grain yield. Underwater, stress conditions, there were significant differences in all the parameters. In the experiment, genotypes Barani-83 and Subhani-21 were drought-tolerant and significantly increased parameters such as the number of grains per spike and grain yield. These parameters can be used as selection criteria for breeding programs of drought-tolerant varieties.
Aaliya, K., Qamar, Z., Ahmad, N. I., Ali, Q., Munim, F. A., & Husnain, T. (2016). Transformation, evaluation of gtgene and multivariate genetic analysis for morpho-physiological and yield attributing traits in Zea mays. Genetika, 48(1), 423-433.
Abbas, H. G., Mahmood, A., & Ali, Q. (2015). Genetic variability and correlation analysis for various yield traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Journal of Agricultural Research, 53(4), 481-491.
Abbas, H. G., Mahmood, A., & Ali, Q. (2016). Zero tillage: a potential technology to improve cotton yield. Genetika, 48(2), 761-776.
Ahmad, H. M., Ahsan, M., Ali, Q., & Javed, I. (2012). Genetic variability, heritability and correlation studies of various quantitative traits of mung bean (Vigna radiate L.) at different radiation levels. International Research Journal of Microbiology, 3(11), 352-362.
Akçura, M. (2009). Genetic variability and interrelationship among grain yield and some quality traits in Turkish winter durum wheat landraces. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 33(6), 547-556
Ali, F., Ahsan, M., Ali, Q., & Kanwal, N. (2017). Phenotypic stability of Zea mays grain yield and its attributing traits under drought stress. Frontiers in plant science, 8, 1397.
Ali, Q. and M. Ahsan, (2012). Estimation of genetic variability and correlation analysis for quantitative traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). International Journal of Agro-Veterinary and Medical Sciences, 6(4): 241-249.
Ali, Q., Ahsan, M., & Saleem, M. (2010a). Genetic variability and trait association in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(3), 328-333.
Ali, Q., Ahsan, M., Ali, F., Aslam, M., Khan, N. H., Munzoor, M., ... & Muhammad, S. (2013). Heritability, heterosis and heterobeltiosis studies for morphological traits of maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. Advancements in Life Sciences, 1(1):52-63.
Ali, Q., Ahsan, M., Kanwal, N., Ali, F., Ali, A., Ahmed, W., ... & Saleem, M. (2016). Screening for drought tolerance: comparison of maize hybrids under water deficit condition. Advancements in Life Sciences, 3(2), 51-58.
Ali, Q., Ahsan, M., Khaliq, I., Elahi, M., Shahbaz, M., Ahmed, W., & Naees, M. (2011a). Estimation of genetic association of yield and quality traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). International Research Journal Plant Science, 2(6), 166-169.
Ali, Q., Ahsan, M., Tahir, M. H. N., Elahi, M., Farooq, J., Waseem, M., & Sadique, M. (2011b). Genetic variability for grain yield and quality traits in chickpea. International Journal of Agro-Veterinary and Medical Sciences, 5, 201-208.
Ali, Q., Ali, A., Ahsan, M., Nasir, I. A., Abbas, H. G., & Ashraf, M. A. (2014). Line× Tester analysis for morpho-physiological traits of Zea mays L seedlings. Advancements in Life sciences, 1(4), 242-253.
Ali, Q., Ali, A., Awan, M. F., Tariq, M., Ali, S., Samiullah, T. R., ... & Hussain, T. (2014). Combining ability analysis for various physiological, grain yield and quality traits of Zea mays L. Life Sci J, 11(8s), 540-551.
Ali, Q., Elahi, M., Ahsan, M., Tahir, M. H. N., Khaliq, I., Kashif, M., ... & Ejaz, M. (2012). Genetic analysis of Morpho-Physiological and quality traits in chickpea genotypes (Cicer arietinum L.). African Journal of Agriculture Research, 7(23), 3403-3412.
Ali, Q., Muhammad, A., & Farooq, J. (2010b). Genetic variability and trait association in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotypes at seedling stage. Electronic Journal of Plant Breeding, 1(3), 334-341.
Allard, R. W. (1960). Principles of plant breeding. John Willey and Sons. Inc. New York, 485.
Aycicek, M. E. H. M. E. T., & Yildirim, T. E. L. A. T. (2006). Heritability of yield and some yield components in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 35(1), 17-22.
Aziz, T., Khalil, I. H., Hussain, Q., Shah, T., Ahmad, N., & Sohail, A. (2018). Heritability and selection response for grain yield and associated traits in F 3 wheat populations. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 34(4), 767-774.
Baloch, M. J., Baloch, E., Jatoi, W. A., & Veesar, N. F. (2013). Correlations and heritability estimates of yield and yield attributing traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Pakistan Journal of Agriculture, Agricultural Engineering, Veterinary Sciences, 29(2), 96-105.
Batool, F., Hassan, S., Azam, S., Sher, Z., Ali, Q., & Rashid, B. (2023). Transformation and expressional studies of GaZnF gene to improve drought tolerance in Gossypium hirsutum. Scientific Reports, 13(1), 5064.
Bernardo, L., Carletti, P., Badeck, F.W., Rizza, F., Morcia, C., Ghizzoni, R., Rouphael, Y., Colla, G., Terzi, V. and Lucini, L., (2019). Metabolomic responses triggered by arbuscular mycorrhiza enhance tolerance to water stress in wheat cultivars. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 137, pp.203-212
Bhargava, A., Shukla, S., Katiyar, R. S., & Ohri, D. (2003). Selection parameters for genetic improvement in Chenopodium grain yield in sodic soil. Journal of Applied Horticulture, 5(1), 45-48.
Christy, B., Tausz‐Posch, S., Tausz, M., Richards, R., Rebetzke, G., Condon, A., McLean, T., Fitzgerald, G., Bourgault, M. and O'Leary, G., (2018). Benefits of increasing transpiration efficiency in wheat under elevated CO2 for rainfed regions. Global Change Biology, 24(5), pp.1965-1977.
Hafeez, M. N., Khan, M. A., Sarwar, B., Hassan, S., Ali, Q., Husnain, T., & Rashid, B. (2021). Mutant Gossypium universal stress protein-2 (GUSP-2) gene confers resistance to various abiotic stresses in E. coli BL-21 and CIM-496-Gossypium hirsutum. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 20466.
Javed, I., Ahsan, M., Ahmad, H. M., & Ali, Q. (2016). Role of mutation breeding to improve Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) yield: An overview. Nature Science, 14(1), 63-77.
Karatayev, M., Clarke, M., Salnikov, V., Bekseitova, R. and Nizamova, M., (2022). Monitoring climate change, drought conditions and wheat production in Eurasia: the case study of Kazakhstan. Heliyon, 8(1), p.e08660.
Kulkarni, M., Soolanayakanahally, R., Ogawa, S., Uga, Y., Selvaraj, M.G. and Kagale, S., (2017). Drought response in wheat: key genes and regulatory mechanisms controlling root system architecture and transpiration efficiency. Frontiers in chemistry, 5, p.106.
Mwadzingeni, L., Shimelis, H., Tesfay, S. and Tsilo, T.J., (2016). Screening of bread wheat genotypes for drought tolerance using phenotypic and proline analyses. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, p.1276.
Naveed, M. T., Ali, Q., Ahsan, M., & Hussain, B. (2012). Correlation and path coefficient analysis for various quantitative traits in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). International Journal for Agro Veterinary and Medical Sciences, 6(2), 97-106.
Nezhadahmadi, A., Prodhan, Z.H. and Faruq, G., (2013). Drought tolerance in wheat. The Scientific World Journal, 2013.
Pequeno, D.N., Hernandez-Ochoa, I.M., Reynolds, M., Sonder, K., MoleroMilan, A., Robertson, R.D., Lopes, M.S., Xiong, W., Kropff, M. and Asseng, S., (2021). Climate impact and adaptation to heat and drought stress of regional and global wheat production. Environmental Research Letters, 16(5), p.054070.
Poudel, M.R., Ghimire, S., Dhakal, K.H., Thapa, D.B. and Poudel, H.K., (2020). Evaluation of wheat genotypes under irrigated, heat stress and drought conditions. Journal of Biology and Today's World, 9(1), pp.1-12.
Puspito, A. N., Rao, A. Q., Hafeez, M. N., Iqbal, M. S., Bajwa, K. S., Ali, Q., ... & Husnain, T. (2015). Transformation and evaluation of Cry1Ac+ Cry2A and GTGene in Gossypium hirsutum L. Frontiers in Plant Science, 6, 943.
Rui Guo, Lian, X.S., Yang J., Ming, X.L., Xiu, L.Z., Feng, X.G., Qi L., Xu, X., HaoRu, L. (2018). Metabolic responses to drought stress in the tissues of drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive wheat genotype seedlings, AoB Plants, 10, ply016
Sallam, A., Alqudah, A.M., Dawood, M.F., Baenziger, P.S. and Börner, A., (2019). Drought stress tolerance in wheat and barley: advances in physiology, breeding and genetics research. International journal of molecular sciences, 20(13), p.3137.
Shewry, P.R. and Hey, S.J., 2015. The contribution of wheat to human diet and health. Food and energy security, 4(3), pp.178-202.
Tatar, O., Cakalogullari, U., TONK, F.A., Istipliler, D. and Karakoc, R., (2020). Effect of drought stress on yield and quality traits of common wheat during grain filling stage. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 25(2), pp.236-244.
Vassileva, V., Signarbieux, C., Anders, I. and Feller, U., (2011). Genotypic variation in drought stress response and subsequent recovery of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Plant Research, 124(1), pp.147-154.
Veesar, N.F., Channa, A.N., Rind, M.J. and Larik, A.S., (2007). Influence of water stress imposed at different stages on growth and yield attributes in bread wheat genotypes Triticum aestivum L. Wheat Information Service, 104, pp.15-19.
Waseem, M., Ali, Q., Ali, A., Samiullah, T. R., Ahmad, S., Baloch, D. M., ... & Bajwa, K. S. (2014). Genetic analysis for various traits of Cicer arietinum under different spacing. Life Sci J, 11(12s), 14-21.
Zafar, M. M., Mustafa, G., Shoukat, F., Idrees, A., Ali, A., Sharif, F., ... & Li, F. (2022). Heterologous expression of cry3Bb1 and cry3 genes for enhanced resistance against insect pests in cotton. Scientific Reports, 12(1), 10878.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 A RAUF, MF KHAN, A RAMZAN, ZU ABIDEEN, I MUNAWAR
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.